What is Domain Name ?
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control on the Internet. Domain Name System, or DNS, is the most recognized system for assigning addresses to Internet web servers. Domain names are used to identify one or more IP addresses. Without a domain, you would have to tell your customers that your site is located at a temporary url such as 127.441.733.14/~mysite instead of using a domain name such as mysite.com, making your site appear unprofessional and impractical.

Root Name Server
A root name server is a name server for the root zone of the Domain Name System of the Internet. It directly answers requests for records in the root zone and answers other requests by returning a list of the authoritative name servers for the appropriate top-level domain (TLD).
Root Level domain : The Domain Name System is a hierarchical naming system for computers, services, or any resource participating in the Internet. The top of that hierarchy is the root domain. The root domain does not have a formal name and its label in the DNS hierarchy is an empty string.

Top Level Domain (TLD)
A top-level domain (TLD) is the last segment of the domain name. The TLD is the letters immediately following the final dot in an Internet address.The top-level domains (TLDs) such as com, net and org are the highest level of domain names of the Internet. Top-level domains form the DNS root zone of the hierarchical Domain Name System. Every domain name ends with a top-level domain label. For Example In our website www.geekyshows.com , com is Top Level Domian.

Restricted Top Level Domains
Restricted top-level domains (rTLDs), like .aero, .biz, .edu, .mil, .museum, .name, and .pro, that require the registrant to represent a certain type of entity, or to belong to a certain community. For example, the .name TLD is reserved for individuals, and .edu is reserved for educational entities.

Country Code Top Level Domain
Country-code TLDs (ccTLDs) represent specific geographic locations. For example: .mx represents Mexico and .eu represents the European Union. Some ccTLDs have residency restrictions. For example, .eu requires registrants to live or be located in a country belonging to the European Union. Other ccTLDs, like the ccTLD .it representing Italy, allow anyone to register them, but require a trustee service if the registrant is not located in a specified country or region. Finally, there are ccTLDs that can be registered by anyone — .co representing Colombia, for example, has no residency requirements at all.

Second-level domains (SLD)
A second-level domain (SLD) is the portion of the domain name that is located immediately to the left of the dot and domain name extension. You define the SLD when you register a domain name.
Example 1: The SLD in mysite.com is mysite. 
Example 2: The SLD in mysite.co.uk is still mysite.

Country code second level domains (ccSLD)
A country code second-level domain (ccSLD) is a domain name class that many country code top-level domain (ccTLD) registries implement. The ccSLD portion of the domain name is located between the ccTLD and the SLD. Example: The ccSLD in coolexample.co.uk is .co.

What is SubDomain Name
Subdomains are a smaller part of a larger domain. For example I have a Website www.geekyshows.com If i create a sub domain at www.geekyshows.com it will be look like this help.geekyshows.com . Here help is a subdomain.

Example – www.geekyshows.com, Example – help.geekyshows.com
DNS Hierarchy
Example Domain
Root level Domain
Top Level Domain
Second Level Domain
Sub Domain

How Domain Names are Assigned
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the ultimate authority for domain-name assignments. ICANN conveys authority to (accredits) Registrars throughout the world to register second-level domains within specific top-level domains; this ensures that all domain names are unique.

What is Domain Name System (DNS)?
DNS is a protocol within the set of standards for how computers exchange data on the Internet and on many private networks, known as the TCP/IP protocol suite. Its basic job is to turn a user-friendly domain name like "geekyshows.com" into an Internet Protocol (IP) address like that computers use to identify each other on the network.

How Domain Name Work ?
After Registering a Domain name the domain name must have a hosted website that includes a numeric address, called an IP address, for visitors to access the website using your domain name.
Your domain name and its associated IP address are stored in a common database along with every other domain and associated IP address that are accessible via the Internet.
When visitors enter your domain name into a Web browser, the browser request uses your domain name to find the domain name's associated IP address and, therefore, the website. People use domain names instead of IP addresses because it is easier to remember a name rather than a series of numbers.

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